当我和学生老师一起工作时 on 制定有效的课程 plans, one thing I always asked 的m to revise was 的 phrase “We will 讨论.”
We will 讨论 的 video.
We will 讨论 的 story.
We will 讨论 our results.
每次在课程计划中看到它时，我都会添加一个 note: “What format will you use? 什么 questions will you ask? How will you ensure that all 学生们 participate?”我很确定 We will 讨论 actually meant 的 teacher would do most of 的 talking; He would throw out a couple of questions like “So what did you 认为 about 的 video?” or “What was 的 的me of 的 story?” and a few 学生们 would respond, resulting in something that 看着 like a 讨论ion, but was ultimately just a conversation between 的 teacher and a handful of extroverted 学生们; a classic case of 鱼眼教学.
问题是’t 的m; in most of 的 classrooms where 的y’d sat as 学生们, that’s exactly what a class 讨论ion 看着 like. They didn’t know any other “formats.” 我只有几个自己熟悉。但是当老师最近开始与我联系，要求提供更全面的清单时，我知道是时候了 做一些认真的研究。
So here 的y are: 15 formats for structuring a class 讨论ion 使其更具吸引力，更有条理，更公平且在学术上更具挑战性。如果你’ve struggled to find effective ways to develop 学生们’听说能力，这是您的幸运日。
I’ve separated 的 strategies into three groups. The first batch contains the 高准备策略格式，要求教师提前进行一些计划或收集材料。接下来来 the 低准备策略, which can be used on 的 fly when you have a few extra minutes or just want your 学生们 to get more active. Note that 的se are not strict categories; it’当然可以简化或添加更多肉类 to any of 的se 结构 and still make 的m work. The last group is 的 持续的策略。这些是 较小的技术 与其他教学策略相结合’真的很孤单。对于每种策略，您’将找到它有时会使用的其他名称的列表，对其基本结构的描述以及对存在的变体的说明（如果有）。要观看实施中的每种策略，请单击其名称，然后会打开一个新窗口，其中包含演示该策略的视频。
基本结构： Stations or posters are set up around 的 classroom, on 的 walls or on tables. Small groups of 学生们 travel from station to station together, performing some kind of task or responding to a prompt, either of which will result in a conversation.
变化： Some 画廊漫步s stay true to 的 term 画廊, where groups of 学生们 create informative posters, 的n act as tour guides or docents, giving other 学生们 a short presentation about 的ir poster and conducting a Q&关于它。在斯塔尔·萨克斯坦（Starr Sackstein）’在高中教室里，她的车站包括 video tutorials created 通过 的 学生们 的mselves. Before I knew 的 term 画廊漫步, I 分享d a strategy similar to it called 聊天站, where 的 teacher prepares 讨论ion prompts or content-related tasks and sets 的m up around 的 room for 学生们 to visit in small groups.
a.k.a. Values Continuum, Forced Debate, Physical Barometer, This or 那
基本结构： A statement that has two possible responses—agree or disagree—is read out loud. Depending on whether 的y agree or disagree with 这个 statement, 学生们 move to one side of 的 room or 的 other. From that spot, 学生们 take turns defending 的ir positions.
变化： Often a 哲学椅debate will be based around a text or group of texts 学生们 have read ahead of time; 学生们 are required to cite textual evidence to support 的ir claims and usually hold 的 texts in 的ir hands during 的 讨论ion. Some teachers set up one hot seat to represent each side, and 学生们 must take turns in 的 seat. In less formal variations (which require less prep), a teacher may simply read provocative statements 学生们 are likely to disagree on, and a debate can occur spontaneously 没有 a text to refer to (I call 这个 variation This or 那 in my 教室破冰船 发布）。教师也可以选择提供连续的选择，范围从“Strongly Agree” on one side of 的 room, all 的 way to “Strongly Disagree” on 的 other, and have 学生们 place 的mselves along that continuum based on 的 strength of 的ir convictions.
基本结构： 学生分为4组。这些组中的三个被分配来代表特定的观点。第四组的成员被指定为 “provocateurs,”确保讨论继续进行并保持挑战性。每个小组一个人（“speaker”) sits in a desk facing 扬声器s from 的 other groups, so 的y form a square in 的 center of 的 room. Behind each 扬声器, 的 remaining group members are seated: two right behind 的 扬声器, 的n three behind 的m, and so on, forming a kind of triangle. From above, 这个 would look like a pinwheel. The four 扬声器s introduce and 讨论 questions 的y prepared ahead of time (this preparation is done with 的ir groups). After some time passes, new 学生们 rotate from 的 seats behind 的 扬声器 进入中心座位并继续对话。
变化： 当高中英语老师 莎拉·布朗·韦斯林 introduced 这个 strategy in 的 featured video (click 风车讨论above), she used it as a device for talking about literature, where each group represented a different author, plus one provocateur group. But in 的 comments that follow 的 video, Wessling adds that she also uses 的 strategy with non-fiction, where 学生们 represent authors of different non-fiction texts or are assigned to take on different perspectives about an issue.
基本结构： Students prepare 通过 reading a text or group of texts and writing some higher-order 讨论ion questions about 的 text. On seminar day, 学生们 sit in a circle and an introductory, open-ended question is posed 通过 的 teacher or student 讨论ion leader. From 的re, 学生们 continue 的 conversation, prompting one another to support 的ir claims with textual evidence. There is no particular order to how 学生们 speak, but 的y are encouraged to respectfully 分享 的 floor with others. 讨论区is meant to happen naturally and 学生们 do not need to raise 的ir hands to speak. This 苏格拉底研讨会概述 from 的 website 面对历史与自我 提供适当问题的列表，以及有关如何准备研讨会的更多信息。
变化： If 学生们 are beginners, 的 teacher may write 的 讨论ion questions, or 的 question creation can be a joint effort. For larger classes, teachers may need to set up seminars in more of a fishbowl-like arrangement, dividing 学生们 into one inner circle that will participate in 的 讨论ion, and one outer circle that silently observes, takes notes, and may eventually trade places with those in 的 inner circle, sometimes all at once, and sometimes 通过 “tapping in” as 的 urge strikes 的m.
基本结构： Give 学生们 a broad question or problem that is likely to result in lots of different ideas, such as “What were 的 impacts of 的 Great Depresssion?” or “What 每个人都应该阅读文学作品吗？” Have 学生们 generate responses 通过 writing ideas on post-it notes (one idea per note) and placing 的m in no particular arrangement on a wall, whiteboard, or chart paper. Once lots of ideas have been generated, have 学生们 begin grouping 的m into similar categories, 的n label the categories and 讨论 why 的 ideas fit within 的m, how 的 categories relate to one another, and so on.
变化： Some teachers have 学生们 do much of 这个 exercise—recording 的ir ideas and arranging 的m into categories—没有 talking at first. In other variations, participants are asked to re-combine 的 ideas into new, different categories after 的 first round of organization occurs. Often, 这个 activity serves as a good pre-writing exercise, after which 学生们 will write some kind of analysis or position paper.
基本结构： Students form two circles, one inside circle and one outside circle. Each student on 的 inside is 对ed with a student on 的 outside; 的y face each other. The teacher poses a question to 的 whole group and 对s 讨论 的ir responses with each other. Then 的 teacher signals 学生们 to rotate: Students on 的 outside circle move one space to 的 right so 的y are standing in front of a new person (or sitting, as 的y are in 的 video). Now 的 teacher poses a new question, and 的 process is repeated.
变化： Instead of two circles, 学生们 could also form two straight lines facing one another. Instead of “rotating” to switch partners, one line just slides over one spot, and 的 leftover person on 的 end comes around to 的 beginning of 的 line. Some teachers use 这个 strategy to have 学生们 teach one 片 of content to 的ir fellow 学生们, making it less of a 讨论ion strategy and more of a peer teaching format. In fact, many of 的se protocols could be used for peer teaching as well.
基本结构： 来自的另一个好主意 莎拉·布朗·韦斯林，这是一个小组讨论策略， gives 学生们 exposure to more of 的ir peers’想法并防止当一个小组不这样做时可能发生的停滞’t happen to have 的 right chemistry. Students are placed into a few groups of 4-6 学生们 each and are given a 讨论ion question to talk about. After sufficient time has passed for 的 讨论ion to develop, one or two 学生们 from each group rotate to a different group, while 的 other group members remain where 的y are. Once in 的ir new group, 的y will 讨论 a different, but related question, and 的y may also 分享 some of 的 key points from 的ir last group’s conversation. For 的 next rotation, 学生们 who have not rotated before may be chosen to move, resulting in groups that are continually evolving.
基本结构： Two 学生们 sit facing each other in 的 center of 的 room; 的 remaining 学生们 围成一圈 around 的m. The two central 学生们 have a conversation based on a pre-determined topic and often using specific skills 的 class is practicing (such as asking follow-up questions, paraphrasing, or elaborating on 另一个人’s point). Students on 的 outside observe, take notes, or perform some other 讨论ion-related task assigned 通过 的 teacher.
变化： 此策略的一种变体允许 students in 与那些人交易场所的外圈 in 的 fishbowl, doing kind of a relay-style 讨论ion, or 的y may periodically “coach” 的 fishbowl talkers from 的 sidelines. Teachers may also opt to have 学生们 in 的 outside circle grade 的 participants’ conversation with a rubric, 的n give feedback on what 的y saw in a debriefing afterward, as mentioned in 的 featured video.
基本结构： One student assumes 的 role of a book 字符 , significant figure in history, or concept (such as a tornado, an animal, or 的 铁达尼号). Sitting in front of 的 rest of 的 class, 的 student responds to classmates’ questions while staying in 字符 in that role.
变化： Give more 学生们 的 opportunity to be in 的 hot seat while increasing everyone’s participation by having 学生们 do hot seat 讨论ions in small groups, where one person per group acts as 的 “character” and three or four others ask 的m questions. In another variation, several 学生们 could form a panel of different 字符 s, taking questions from 的 class all together and interacting with one another like guests on a TV talk show.
基本结构： Students begin in 对s, responding to a 讨论ion question only with a single partner. After each person has had a chance to 分享 的ir ideas, 的 对 joins another 对, creating a group of four. Pairs 分享 的ir ideas with 的 对 的y just joined. Next, groups of four join together to form groups of eight, and so on, until 的 whole class is joined up in one large 讨论ion.
变化： This structure could simply be used to 分享 ideas on a topic, or 学生们 could be required to 每次都达成共识 的y join up with a new group.
Whereas 的 other formats in 这个 list 具有独特的形状 活动 you do with 学生们—the strategies in 这个 section are more like plug-ins, working 讨论ion into other instructional activities and improving 的 quality and reach of existing conversations.
One of 的 limitations of 讨论ion is that rich, face-to-face conversations can only happen when all parties are available, so we’re limited to 的 time we have in class. With a tool like 威克斯，那些限制就消失了。就像您只与一个人或一组人建立的私人语音信箱（但SOOOO容易得多）一样，Voxer允许用户在最方便的时间进行对话 each participant. So a group of four 学生们 can “discuss” a topic from 3pm until bedtime—asynchronously—each member contributing whenever 的y have a moment, and if 的 teacher makes herself part of 的 group, she can listen in, offer feedback, or contribute her own 讨论ion points. 威克斯 is also invaluable for collaborating on projects and for having one-on-one 讨论ions with 学生们, parents, and your own colleagues. Like many other educators, 彼得 DeWitt took a while to really understand 的 potential of 威克斯, but in 这个 埃德·周 片，他解释了使他转身的原因。
A 反向通道 is 与另一项活动同时发生的对话。我第一次看到反向渠道在起作用 不开会: While those of us in 的 audience listened to presenters and watched a few short video clips, a separate screen was up beside 的 main screen, projecting something called TodaysMeet (update: TodaysMeet has shut down. Use YoTeach！ 相反，它看起来很像是从前的那些聊天室，基本上是一个空白屏幕，人们可以在其中输入几行文本，这些行接after而来，没有其他铃声。房间中的任何人都可以在手机，笔记本电脑或平板电脑上参加此对话，提问，提供评论并共享相关资源的链接，而无需中断演示流程。这种工具允许进行完全无声的讨论，而没有’不必以超快的速度前进，这给了 可能不愿意大声说出来或思想处理得较慢的学生有机会全力以赴。要更深入地讨论如何使用这种工具，请仔细阅读本文 overview of using 反向通道 讨论ions in 的 classroom 通过 埃多比亚’s 贝丝·霍兰德。
Talk moves are sentence frames we supply to our 学生们 that help 的m express ideas and interact with one another in respectful, academically appropriate ways. From kindergarten all 的 way through college, 学生们 can benefit from explicit instruction in 的 skills of summarizing another person’s argument before presenting an alternate view, asking clarifying questions, and expressing agreement or partial agreement with 的 stance of another participant. Talk moves can be incorporated into any of 的 other 讨论ion formats listed here.
全脑教学 是一套不断发展的教学和课堂管理方法 in popularity over 的 past 10 years. One of WBT’基本技术是 教好, a peer teaching strategy that begins with 的 teacher spending a few minutes introducing a 概念 的 class. Next, 的 teacher says 教导！, 的 class responds with 好的！和 学生轮流重新教学 the concept to each other. It’有点像思想对分享，但是’s faster-paced, it focuses more on re-teaching than general sharing, and 学生们 are encouraged to use gestures to animate 的ir 讨论ion. Although WBT is most popular in elementary schools, 这个 featured video shows 的 creator of WBT, Chris Biffle, using it quite successfully with college 学生们. I have also used 教好with college 学生们, and most of my 学生们 said 的y were happy for a change from 的 sit-and-listen 的y were used to in college classrooms.
An oldie but a goodie, 思维对份额 can be used any time you want to plug interactivity into a lesson: Simply have 学生们 认为 about 的ir response to a question, form a 对 with 另一个人, 讨论 的ir response, 的n 分享 it with 的 larger group. Because I feel 这个 strategy has so many uses and can be way more powerful than we give it credit for, I devoted a whole post to 思维对份额; everything you need to know about it is right 的re.
Since writing 这个 post, I have learned about two more 讨论ion strategies that teachers are finding to be incredibly effective and powerful for getting 学生们 to talk, especially about books and other texts:
This protocol has 学生们 come up with 的ir own 思想，缠绵 问题和 主显节 from an assigned reading. Teachers who have used 这个 method say it has generated some of 的 richest conversations 的y have ever heard from 学生们!
This strategy places 学生们 into one-on-one conversations, getting 的m to learn each others’ names better and create a track record of what 的y talked about. Excellent for classes where you want to assess for 讨论ion and help 学生们 get more comfortable with each other.
那你还有什么呢？ 我想这是一个很完整的清单，但是我’m sure more strategies are out 的re. If you use a 讨论ion strategy that’此处未提及，请在下面分享。