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It happens at the start of every school year: Teachers decide that once and for all, they are going to fix the problem of student 语法 errors. These kids can’t write, they say. They don’t know their parts of speech. They can’t spell. They write in“text language.”Their writing is full of run-on sentences. They don’t even put capital 让ters at the beginning of sentences anymore!
I mean, what did they teach them last year, anyway?
Except it doesn’t.
As the school year wears on, despite all those drills, students continue to make the same mistakes. And all across the land, their teachers’voices rise in chorus:“I taught you this! We went over this! Don’t you remember?”
Teaching Grammar Out of Context Doesn’t Work
首先，让我快速提及一下“grammar,”我泛指所有使写作正确的约定：拼写，标点，用法，大写等。我没有每次都列出所有这些，而是’ll use the term “grammar” to save time.
好的，顺便说一句，这里’任何一位英语艺术老师都应该从这篇文章中删除最重要的事情：在有意义的写作范围之外，孤立地语法教学对学生的写作质量没有重大影响；事实上， excessive drills can have a detrimental impact on it.
These findings have been supported by decades of research.
In his exhaustive 1984 meta-analysis of over 500 published studies on composition，Hillocks发现语法教学效果不佳，以致于他的总结听起来更像是一种告诫：“校董会，行政人员和教师以教学写作的名义对学生进行了长时间的系统研究传统学校语法的培训，这给他们带来了严重的伤害，任何关心有效写作教学的人都不应容忍。关心教学标准用法和印刷约定的教师应在实际书写问题的背景下进行教学。”
These findings were corroborated three decades later. In a 2012 meta-analysis of 115 studies or other publications，研究人员研究了涉及六种不同写作干预的影响“明确教授写作过程，技能或知识。”在这六项中，仅有一项没有统计学意义的影响是语法教学，而其中有一半的研究实际上产生了负面结果（Graham，McKeown，Kiuhara，& Harris, 2012).
In fact, the evidence is so strong against this kind of teaching that the National Council of Teachers of English put forth a resolution affirming that “the use of isolated 语法 and usage exercises…is a deterrent to the improvements of students’ speaking and writing.”
Even without academic research to back it up, the ineffectiveness of piling on 语法 drills is evident every time a teacher implements the practice, only to discover that it hasn’t had any significant impact on the quality of student writing.
In her 2014 piece for The Atlantic, “The Wrong Way to Teach Grammar,”米歇尔·纳瓦拉·克莱里（Michelle Navarre Cleary）介绍了她在城市社区大学的教学经历，在该大学中，大多数学生在三年内未能完成两年制学位。“这些学生是错误的信念的受害者，他们认为语法课必须在写作之前进行，而不是语法是最好的学习方法 through 写作。罪魁祸首：侧重于传统语法教学的必需的发展性写作课。我一次又一次地目睹了愿望让步于灰心。在这个由七所大学组成的系统中，大约80％的学生参加了此类课程的测试，在那里他们可以花长达一年的时间才被要求写更多的段落。在全国范围内，超过一半的大专生和大学生在继续学习之前就辍学了。本质上，他们在开始上大学之前就离开了。”
A More Effective Way to Teach Grammar
So what should teachers do instead?
By the way,“reading”means real books, articles, and other texts that will turn students into people who love to read and read frequently. Regular exposure to lots and lots of good writing will naturally improve the correctness of students’writing. This is much less likely to happen with scripted reading programs or day after day of reading passages that have no meaningful context. Read Donalyn Miller’s The Book Whisperer for inspiration on how to make this happen.
2. Curate a database of quick 语法 lessons.
世界上所有的阅读和写作都赢得了’神奇地使学生成为完美的作家。因为它们将继续产生机械错误，并且由于最好在撰写本文时讲授这些约定，所以它们’在您的课堂上，将建立一个系统，使每个学生都能快速学习所需的约定：这可以采取文件柜的形式，甚至可以是带有文件夹的共享驱动器的形式，其中每个错误包含一个高质量的课程：的文件夹 your-you’re errors, a file for then-than errors, and so on.
这些课程几乎来自任何地方，包括一本旧教科书，YouTube视频，’我们会随着时间的推移收集这些信息，或者将它们组合在一起。什么’s important is that they are (a) effective: Rather than dumping everything you can find into this folder—which will only frustrate and confuse students—curate only the most effective materials, and (b) self-running: Set these up so that students can access and learn from them independently, without requiring your help.
3. Have individual students do individual lessons as needed.
Now, as students do the daily work of writing in a range of genres, for a variety of purposes—which you have just made lots of extra time for by cutting whole-class 语法 instruction out of your plans—send individual students to these lessons as needed. Students can go to the lesson they need, refresh themselves on the rule, and then get back to their writing, where they can correct the error and keep an eye out for future uses of that same convention.
有时，您可能会发现许多学生犯了同样的错误，在这种情况下，花五分钟的时间复习整个概念可能是适当的。在其他时候，您可能希望促使学生尝试更高级的句子结构类型。所以像上课一样学习工艺课 mentor sentences could be an effective way to accomplish that.
Eventually, once students become familiar with your database of lessons, they should start to seek them out on their own as they write. This is the ideal: Students who are aware of when they need help, and who can find the resources they need to help themselves.
4. Understand that this is a process.
You will never, ever be able to teach in such a way that all students are error-free, and even students who understand the rules will occasionally mess up. Spend 10 minutes on social media and you’ll see that most adults are still constantly making 语法 errors. So rather than try to fix it once and for all, get your students reading and writing as much as possible and help them develop a personalized, proactive approach to producing correct writing.
Want a Fantastic Collection of Short Grammar Lessons Ready to Use?
Cleary, M.N. (2014, February 25). The wrong way to teach 语法. The Atlantic. Retrieved from theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/02/the-wrong-way-to-teach-grammar/284014/
格雷厄姆（S.）格雷厄姆（S.）&哈里斯（Harris，K.R.）（2012）。对小学一年级学生写作指导的荟萃分析。 Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 879-896.
Hillocks Jr, G. (1984). What works in teaching composition: A meta-analysis of experimental treatment studies. American Journal of Education, 93(1), 133-170.
National Council of Teachers of English. (1985). Resolution on 语法 exercises to teach speaking and writing. Retrieved from ncte.org/positions/statements/grammarexercises