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It happens at the start of every school year: Teachers decide that once and for all, they are going to fix the problem of student 语法 errors. These kids can’t write, they say. They don’t know their parts of speech. They can’t spell. They write in“text language.”Their writing is full of run-on sentences. They don’t even put capital 让ters at the beginning of sentences anymore!

I mean, what did they teach them last year, anyway?

这样就决定了。在今年进入任何课程之前,让学生写一件事之前,他们将回到基础知识:一个,两个,三个完整的星期,只剩下部分口语课,语法练习,标点符号练习。当然,如果他们教得足够努力,那就应该照顾好它。

Except it doesn’t.

As the school year wears on, despite all those drills, students continue to make the same mistakes. And all across the land, their teachers’voices rise in chorus:“I taught you this! We went over this! Don’t you remember?”

Teaching Grammar Out of Context Doesn’t Work

首先,让我快速提及一下“grammar,”我泛指所有使写作正确的约定:拼写,标点,用法,大写等。我没有每次都列出所有这些,而是’ll use the term “grammar” to save time.

好的,顺便说一句,这里’任何一位英语艺术老师都应该从这篇文章中删除最重要的事情:在有意义的写作范围之外,孤立地语法教学对学生的写作质量没有重大影响;事实上, excessive drills can have a detrimental impact on it.

These findings have been supported by decades of research.

In his exhaustive 1984 meta-analysis of over 500 published studies on composition,Hillocks发现语法教学效果不佳,以致于他的总结听起来更像是一种告诫:“校董会,行政人员和教师以教学写作的名义对学生进行了长时间的系统研究传统学校语法的培训,这给他们带来了严重的伤害,任何关心有效写作教学的人都不应容忍。关心教学标准用法和印刷约定的教师应在实际书写问题的背景下进行教学。”

These findings were corroborated three decades later. In a 2012 meta-analysis of 115 studies or other publications,研究人员研究了涉及六种不同写作干预的影响“明确教授写作过程,技能或知识。”在这六项中,仅有一项没有统计学意义的影响是语法教学,而其中有一半的研究实际上产生了负面结果(Graham,McKeown,Kiuhara,& Harris, 2012).

In fact, the evidence is so strong against this kind of teaching that the National Council of Teachers of English put forth a resolution affirming that “the use of isolated 语法 and usage exercises…is a deterrent to the improvements of students’ speaking and writing.”

Even without academic research to back it up, the ineffectiveness of piling on 语法 drills is evident every time a teacher implements the practice, only to discover that it hasn’t had any significant impact on the quality of student writing.

In her 2014 piece for The Atlantic, “The Wrong Way to Teach Grammar,”米歇尔·纳瓦拉·克莱里(Michelle Navarre Cleary)介绍了她在城市社区大学的教学经历,在该大学中,大多数学生在三年内未能完成两年制学位。“这些学生是错误的信念的受害者,他们认为语法课必须在写作之前进行,而不是语法是最好的学习方法 through 写作。罪魁祸首:侧重于传统语法教学的必需的发展性写作课。我一次又一次地目睹了愿望让步于灰心。在这个由七所大学组成的系统中,大约80%的学生参加了此类课程的测试,在那里他们可以花长达一年的时间才被要求写更多的段落。在全国范围内,超过一半的大专生和大学生在继续学习之前就辍学了。本质上,他们在开始上大学之前就离开了。”

A More Effective Way to Teach Grammar

So what should teachers do instead?

1. Give Students LOTS of time to read and write.
没有更好的方法来提高学生’写作,而不是让他们尽可能多地读写。建立某种形式的日常课程 Reading Workshop and 写作 Workshop is a good place to start.

By the way,“reading”means real books, articles, and other texts that will turn students into people who love to read and read frequently. Regular exposure to lots and lots of good writing will naturally improve the correctness of students’writing. This is much less likely to happen with scripted reading programs or day after day of reading passages that have no meaningful context. Read Donalyn Miller’s The Book Whisperer for inspiration on how to make this happen.

“Writing”表示在写作过程和非正式写作过程中一直使用的正式作品,例如日记条目和自由写作。如果您选择放弃大部分或全部的正式语法说明,那么您’这样可以腾出很多上课时间供学生使用。

2. Curate a database of quick 语法 lessons.
世界上所有的阅读和写作都赢得了’神奇地使学生成为完美的作家。因为它们将继续产生机械错误,并且由于最好在撰写本文时讲授这些约定,所以它们’在您的课堂上,将建立一个系统,使每个学生都能快速学习所需的约定:这可以采取文件柜的形式,甚至可以是带有文件夹的共享驱动器的形式,其中每个错误包含一个高质量的课程:的文件夹 your-you’re errors, a file for then-than errors, and so on.

这些课程几乎来自任何地方,包括一本旧教科书,YouTube视频,’我们会随着时间的推移收集这些信息,或者将它们组合在一起。什么’s important is that they are (a) effective: Rather than dumping everything you can find into this folder—which will only frustrate and confuse students—curate only the most effective materials, and (b) self-running: Set these up so that students can access and learn from them independently, without requiring your help.

3. Have individual students do individual lessons as needed.
Now, as students do the daily work of writing in a range of genres, for a variety of purposes—which you have just made lots of extra time for by cutting whole-class 语法 instruction out of your plans—send individual students to these lessons as needed. Students can go to the lesson they need, refresh themselves on the rule, and then get back to their writing, where they can correct the error and keep an eye out for future uses of that same convention.

有时,您可能会发现许多学生犯了同样的错误,在这种情况下,花五分钟的时间复习整个概念可能是适当的。在其他时候,您可能希望促使学生尝试更高级的句子结构类型。所以像上课一样学习工艺课 mentor sentences could be an effective way to accomplish that.

Eventually, once students become familiar with your database of lessons, they should start to seek them out on their own as they write. This is the ideal: Students who are aware of when they need help, and who can find the resources they need to help themselves.

4. Understand that this is a process.
You will never, ever be able to teach in such a way that all students are error-free, and even students who understand the rules will occasionally mess up. Spend 10 minutes on social media and you’ll see that most adults are still constantly making 语法 errors. So rather than try to fix it once and for all, get your students reading and writing as much as possible and help them develop a personalized, proactive approach to producing correct writing.


Want a Fantastic Collection of Short Grammar Lessons Ready to Use?

语法间隙填充程序旨在完美地适应写作工作室的环境,在此环境中,学生仅在需要时访问所需的课程。每个填隙器都包含一个简短的视频,一个学生自己进行的自我检查测验以及一个可以保存在笔记本中的备忘单,以提醒他们该规则。


References

Cleary, M.N. (2014, February 25). The wrong way to teach 语法. The Atlantic. Retrieved from theatlantic.com/education/archive/2014/02/the-wrong-way-to-teach-grammar/284014/

格雷厄姆(S.)格雷厄姆(S.)&哈里斯(Harris,K.R.)(2012)。对小学一年级学生写作指导的荟萃分析。 Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 879-896.

Hillocks Jr, G. (1984). What works in teaching composition: A meta-analysis of experimental treatment studies. American Journal of Education93(1), 133-170.

National Council of Teachers of English. (1985). Resolution on 语法 exercises to teach speaking and writing. Retrieved from ncte.org/positions/statements/grammarexercises


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44 Comments

  1. Kate says:

    Good information. Seems like basic math facts should be approached the same way. I’ve seen teachers spend weeks reviewing basic skills, but by the time the student needs to apply the skill, they have already forgotten their basic facts again.

  2. Tracy Enos says:

    我喜欢这篇文章和这些资源!非常适合个性化课程并让学生控制他们的学习!谢谢!!!

  3. Doreen Tyler says:

    I am in the process of revamping a Comm Arts class into a Grammar/Writing class. Just teaching 语法 itself during the past two years has been a little piece of hell on earth! I knew I needed to teach 语法 in the context of writing, and that is what my goal is for this year. Jennifer, what is your opinion of such 语法-type programs as IXL for Language Arts? I have used it to a great extent for 语法 practice. Is something like IXL as effective a tool as we are told it has potential to be? I’m not so sure anymore after doing my own research on teaching 语法 and in reading your blog post. What do you think? Thanks for this post and for the resources that will assist with my planning and, with great hope, teach my students to be better writers. Now, I need to get to work on this…

    • Hey Doreen!

      At first glance, it seemed as if IXL only offered practice exercises, but no actual lessons on any of the concepts. After I deliberately got some questions wrong, I realized they do corrective re-teaching only after the student gets an answer wrong. I’m not crazy about this approach, because students have to sort of fall into the instruction, rather than being able to proactively access it.

      No Red Ink之类的程序具有类似的目标–教授这类针对性的课程并衡量学生的理解–但他们至少提供了前期课程。作为老师和学生,我希望这样做。当然,该课程只是以书面形式提供,就像阅读P​​DF或解释规则的纸条一样,因此有些学生可能仍然听不懂(这就是为什么我为自己制作视频的原因),但是我可以肯定会看到这样的平台,在学生需要时可以提供良好的按需课程。我什么 wouldn’t do is force all of my students to go through all of the lessons one by one. Mind-numbing torture!

      I’m curious about the impetus for the revamping of your course. What was it originally (in other words, what was covered in the Comm Arts class?) and what are the goals for the new course? You’re calling it Grammar/Writing, but I’m wondering which of those two gets more emphasis. Is the revamping your idea or did it come from above you? Just wondering how these decisions are made.

      I would also look into the work of Kelly Gallagher and Penny Kittle. Everything I have heard from both of them tells me they are right in line with what works best in writing instruction.

      Stay in touch and 让 me know how it goes!

      • Tracey Vincent says:

        Hi Jennifer, thanks for this excellent post. It confirms my very strong gut feeling about the teaching of 语法, based on 35 years of teaching English in the public system (in Australia). I look forward the reading the information in your links. In the school I teach at we deliver two packages : the Be A Super Speller system, based on morphographs (from the US, I believe), and one called Grammar Matters. The morphograph spelling system is a good one, particularly for students who haven’t done enough reading to notice/pick up English spelling rules…..which is most of our cohort. However I agree that these understandings just don’t ‘stick’ unless there’s a lot of follow up and practise.
        I’我不太相信语法课程的价值…..有时候我觉得我’我实际上和孩子们在一起’敲击形容词从句开始!!最近,我的7年级的两个班级都在写故事,而且在此过程中,我能够在很多时候与大多数人进行一对一的练习。 (这是可能的,因为这些孩子大多数都表现得很好,并且让我这样做!)我绝对的错误承担是流连句,我通常关注的是,甚至是直接语音的标点符号,而忽略了特定时刻的拼写。我真的很喜欢要求学生给我读一句话,听‘pause’ or the ‘breath’这意味着句子应该已经结束。他们有更多的机会了解这样做的句子,并觉得自己拥有自己的修改。
        I’ve also had success by typing up student errors ( focusing one one aspect only, such as run-on sentences), projecting these sentences on the board/screen, and the students correct one of these errors per day in their workbooks, or directly on the whiteboard, with the Pen of Power. We call it Conquering the Run-On sentence…one day at a time. Obviously I don’t ever put student names on the work projected.
        I’我很确定我很少有孩子’我曾经教过过,可以告诉你,作为成年人,悬挂的分词是什么…..但没有它们,他们似乎过着充实而有用的生活!
        祝北半球所有老师度过一个难忘的假期。想想我们在从Naplan(国家测试)的痛苦中恢复过来,进入冬天。
        Tracet V

  4. Hetty G says:

    多年以来,我一直在课堂上使用加拿大拼写计划教科书。我还在9月初和6月底进行了Morrison McCall拼写测试。当我使用该程序时,我的学生在整个小组中(而不是每个学生,而是从整体上)不断证明自己的拼写技能有所提高。而且,在我几年没有使用本教科书或改用其他程序的情况下,从9月到6月,整个班级的拼写技能增长都相当平稳。重要的也许是一个完善的程序(我认为是这样)。此外,学生还将学习其他技能,例如独立遵循书面指导并组织工作。这不是我的语言程序的很大一部分,但我确实认为它填补了一个宝贵的空白。

    • Hetty, I’m glad you brought this up.

      我的理解是,严格的拼写研究与我在此更广泛地称为“grammar.” I did a Periscope broadcast 在2016年针对此问题做出了回应(读者快问6:35…let’只是说我是现场直播的新手)。我发现的内容总结在 this document. To sum it up, the research suggests that direct instruction in spelling does have a positive impact on students’spelling skills, especially if the program is well-designed, if students are given lists that match their readiness, and if students are taught self-correction strategies. The results you’ve seen sound consistent with this research.

      The authors of one study did make a point of noting that spelling instruction did NOT impact students’ overall writing 技巧,这很有意义。但是听起来您的意思是关于拼写的。而且,听起来您在课堂上采用了许多其他策略,因此,如果拼写部分只是该较大整体的一部分,并且’按照您描述的方式工作,我’d说继续做你的事情’re doing!

  5. Thanks for writing this post. I agree the debate has been going on for 100’s of years. One other item I would like to add to your list is to respect the spaces that students write in on a daily basis. Trying to tell students that they shouldn’不能以某种方式写只会使问题复杂化。今天,我向学生收费,他们需要学习如何进行代码转换,以及何时可以进行正式和非正式的写作。请查阅《 Troy Hicks》一书,我写的那本书是在五月份发行的,从发短信到教学。我们也在那里介绍语法的历史。再次感谢您的帖子。

    • 嗨,杰里米–this is Holly Burcham, a Customer Experience Manager. Thanks for 让ting us know about your book! We’会尽快检查出来。

  6. Steve Jennette says:

    Ms. Gonzalez,

    Great podcast, but I’m left with a question.

    It makes sense that general reading trumps rote exercises for improving 语法. Where does Quizlet, a site you recommend in your tech course (which is amazing), fit into this discussion?

    Are the Quizlet activities (flash cards, etc) susceptible to the same criticisms raised against stand-alone 语法 drills?

    我在阿拉斯加原住民村教书,我的双语言学生在英语词汇方面挣扎。他们喜欢Quizlet,去年我们在大多数课程中都使用了Quizlet。

    他们的MAP分数有所提高,在我收听此播客之前,我将部分成功归因于常规使用Quizlet。

    Any thoughts on this issue?

    Thank you,

    Steve Jennette

    • 嗨,史蒂夫!很抱歉回复晚;我们正在浏览旧评论,发现这一评论从未得到回答!听起来您正在使用Quizlet抽认卡进行词汇开发。我认为这与语法完全不同,事实上,我’一般而言,我是抽认卡的忠实拥护者。 (请参阅我最近发布的有关 retrieval practice). I’d say keep doing that!!

  7. Alec Wyeth says:

    Jennifer, this is great information. I sincerely hope that only a few still approach teaching 语法 in isolation from writing itself! I was hoping you might also say something about the use of Grammarly which is a fantastic free Chrome extension tool for correcting all types of 语法 errors! Such technology is changing what we need to teach, not don’t. I imagine a day when we really do not need to spend much time teaching the“mechanics”of writing but focusing our valuable and limited time almost exclusively on developing the unique aspects of writing: voice, diction, sentence structure, point of view, content, etc.
    Also, you may want to try to keep your podcasts (of this sort) under 15 minutes.

  8. This podcast and the info you share aligns pretty much with what TPRS and CI teachers are doing in modern foreign languages. You don’t happen to have a version of the Grammar Gap Fillers for Spanish do you? Or do you know anyone who does? I like this idea!

    • Debbie Sachs says:

      Hi, An! I’m a Customer Experience Manager with Cult of Pedagogy. It’s great to hear you like the Grammar Gap Fillers! We’re so sorry, but we only have these available in English; Jenn just isn’t proficient enough to do them in Spanish. Thanks for asking about this.

  9. Danielle B. says:

    We use a workshop model at our school, so your 语法 gap fillers should work well for us. I have a group of students this year who are particularly lacking in the fundamentals of writing and 语法, and they are apathetic about improving their skills. What is your approach to assessment and accountability of learning and using these skills in practical writing assignments? Ideally, students would be instructed to watch the tutorial videos, self-check, etc. as you suggest, and then they would begin applying this knowledge in their own writing. What about students who don’t care if their writing improves? How do I police, so to speak, the students who aren’t motivated to watch the videos and practice on their own? Do you suggest assessing these skills individually somehow?

  10. 我喜欢您对教学的看法和态度。但是,我注意到所提供的练习仅针对单词选择。您如何建议解决正确使用逗号,撇号,引号等所需的技能?当专注于这些平凡的机械技能时,是否有一个已被证明有效的程序或资源?

    • Hey, Kristin! This is Holly–I work for Cult of Pedagogy. Have you tried NoRedInk yet? That’s where I would start. Other than that, we don’t really have any products to recommend. However, this spring Jenn plans to release a 2nd set of Grammar Gap Fillers videos which will be more focused on more than word choice errors. Hope this helps!

      • Larissa Sansom says:

        嗨,詹妮弗,霍莉和克里斯汀!我知道距这次讨论已经快一年了,但我需要推荐Jeff Anderson出色的工作。他刚刚发行了一部新书,很棒,但我想您可能会在他的旧书《 Everyday Editing》中找到想法(同样很棒!)

  11. Ciera says:

    这篇文章最近在Twitter上分享了,我’很高兴我有机会阅读它!一世’我想知道您是否对使用与语法有关的简短铃声产生了看法?去年,我的学校在为ACT考试做准备上施加压力,因此我们在考试前做了一个为期3周的语法课程,对此我们感到讨厌。我们知道不是’原来不是有效的’在上下文中。今年,我们朝着正确的方向迈出了一步,我们正在安排该部门的工作,而不是每周两次进行语法辅导…

    • My experience is in elementary, but I’m thinking if you’re seeing kids are engaged and the practice they’re getting from the bellringer activities is transferring into daily school work, then it seems like they’d work well as a kind of retrieval practice。但是,如果孩子们在响铃方面表现不错,但在工作中仍然犯同样的错误,我’d重新评估如何更有效地使用它们。

  12. Jeni Nelson says:

    I work with 2nd, 3rd and 4th graders at an International school in HaNoi Vietnam. I sought ways to help students with errors in 语法 because I’我选择的语言学课程侧重于‘interlanguage rules”本星期。您的播客非常适合!谢谢!

  13. Jennifer says:

    The Reading and 写作 Workshop link is no longer functioning. Is there an alternate link? Thank you:j

  14. Susan Shaw says:

    I also view this issue as an attention to detail within the discipline of writing. By this I mean, when reviewing a piece of writing, students can often make edits immediately when focused on a specific paragraph or if necessary a specific sentence. Most often in my experience, they are more successful as peer editors than self-editors. Emphasizing the reading and writing connection can be a pro-active approach. Instructing students to practice how to review their writing through the lens of a reader is most beneficial. The need for attention to detail can be recognized at many levels.

  15. Lisa says:

    I didn’t see any mention of dyslexia (I include dysgraphia in that term) in the article. Many dyslexic individuals become writers, but the traditional methods of teaching don’t help this population such as more exposure to reading and writing. Dyslexic people need different instruction, but more importantly, support and encouragement with their unique way of thinking (creativity is often a strength). I think with more emphasis being placed on dyslexia recently, we will be able to better support these students in the near future and decrease teacher burnout and frustration. I know teachers want to be effective, it’s worth it to look into this topic for the students and the teachers. Thank you for all you do!

  16. Elsa del Valle-Gaster, Ph.D. says:

    该站点上的研究信息(最多)是不完整的。问题不是方法(例如,孤立或上下文中的语法或钻探与其他无关)。问题是知识从一个领域或学习模式转移到另一个领域。魔力不会来自我在此博客上读到的内容。

    • Hi Elsa,

      Good point–transfer and application of knowledge is always the goal of any lesson. The strategies presented in the article are intended to help make that transfer happen. If you have a moment, it would be great if you could share any other research you’re aware of that could support teachers as they work with students who are struggling with transferring 语法 skills into their writing. Thanks so much!

  17. Jodi Disario says:

    哇。多么奇妙的时机!我刚刚花了一周时间为我的戏剧课和我的学术语言技能(长期英语学习者)课程打分。因为我显然想惩罚自己,所以所有四个班级都有针对期末考试的论文。我对戏剧课比较宽容,因为它不是英语课,但是使用了我一年一度在ALS课上写作所使用的相同评分标准。每个专栏只为拼写/语法/单词选择分配了5分,因此任何孩子都不会损失超过5分。在我评分的53项测试中,我实际上只给出了该类别中的3分,而且它们都是针对同一孩子的。我绝对喜欢这里列出的方法和资源。随着明年过渡到9年级英语的3个部分,这将变得更加重要。谢谢。

  18. Dawn says:

    Thank you for this! The Reading and 写作 Workshop link doesn’不起作用,因此,如果您具有链接,那就太好了!

  19. Some good observations about the ineffectiveness of teaching 语法.
    我观察到的一件事是,重点放在学生在说话和练习上可以做或不能做的事情上,比起先写作,FAR更有效。

    Once a student is able to speak it naturally than the mastering of same in writing will be relatively straightforward (ignoring writing conventions) . The other way is not…ie mastering the writing first.

    Focusing on writing first accentuates language as knowledge. A no no. Whilst working on speaking first suggest to us to regard it as a skill…Which language is unless you are a linguist.

    口语教学是很少有人擅长的,因此老师倾向于专注于写作。看似比较容易,但在说话方面却产生了负面影响。

    Correction of 语法 in speaking is all about having crystal clear situations (talking about lower levels here) which requires a certain language form. Then stopping students as they speak and make mistakes to see if they can self correct. 如果可以的话, then they know that they need to pay more attention to what they say. And the teacher knows that further teaching is not needed.
    如果可以的话’自我正确之后,您和他们就会知道,他们的意识和理解中缺少某些东西。

    显然,完成所有工作的动力至关重要。我使用幽默感高的隔行扫描来保持课堂的轻便和舒适感–在认真的意图中。
    If that makes sense! ---

  20. Monique says:

    Thank you for your post on dealing with student 语法 errors. While I had tried to teach it as they wrote, I also did not notice improvement. I finally took a 3 week break to do a“grammar blitz”. Now, my conferencing with students is so much more effective because they now know what I’m talking about when we discuss how to become better writers in terms of 语法. We have developed a common language.

  21. Andrea says:

    嗨,詹妮弗。这是非常有用的信息,因此感谢您的转发。这是我的问题。在哪里可以找到更多资源,例如帖子末尾提供的资源?我教大学。有些课程有传统的大学时代学生,有些则是非传统的。好吧,我的一些学生是优秀的作家,许多人在语法和标点符号方面都有严重的错误。包括回来攻读硕士学位的老师!好消息是我倾向于反复看到相同的错误。除了样式(芝加哥APA)外,我还看到了很多主语动词约定,并且在从属从句之后使用逗号!我喜欢为特定学生提供课程以改善他们的特定弱点的想法。但是作为大学的电影研究教授,构图不是我的灵魂。我不知道在哪里寻找优质资源。您在这方面给予的任何帮助将不胜感激。

  22. I would love some references on this for my Spanish students–I am really looking to make some changes this year and this sounds great–just looking for some help in getting started in the right direction.

    • Eric Wenninger says:

      Hey Rachel, are you looking for English 语法 resources for Spanish-speakers studying English, or are you looking for Spanish 语法 resources for English-speakers studying Spanish?

  23. Dave Walsh says:

    嗨詹妮弗–和往常一样,精彩插曲。我想提一提我所做的一些改进“little things”在学生写作中(我在高中阶段教书):在给一组学生评分时’论文中,我会继续打开一个单独的文档,当遇到语法错误模式的示例时,我会将其匿名复制/粘贴到该文档中。然后,作为开发NEXT论文过程的一部分,我向他们介绍他们自己的句子错误,并按错误类型分组,我们将研究如何解决或改进它们。

    我用颜色标记或加下划线或加粗了句子中有问题的部分,并且由于这些句子是按错误类型分组的,因此该班级会看到需要注意的同一问题区域的集合。在某些情况下,我以改进的语法作为模型编写自己的句子版本(尤其是在单词过多,笨拙的情况下),并包括对我所做的特定更改以及为什么句子更好的解释。然后,他们分组合作,为文档中的某些句子提供更好的版本。

    The students are expected to demonstrate deliberate effort at improvements in these areas in the next piece of writing. In other words, fewer of these kinds of mistakes should occur. I’ve found this approach to be pretty successful.

    Thanks again! You’re awesome!
    – Dave

    • Hey Dave!

      喜欢反馈– I’确保Jenn看到了这一点。另外,感谢您抽出宝贵时间分享您的内容’这样做是为了让其他老师受益。非常感谢!

  24. Hi, Ms Gonzales. I was searching on how to teach students who keep forgetting spellings and 语法 rules. I have this one student who misspells words occasionally. Like, in essay A she writes“affectif” instead of “effective”, then I tell her the correct spelling and she’ll spell it correctly the next time (say, in essay B). But when writing essay C she misspells it“affective”, then in essay D she spells it correctly, but in essay E she misspells it.
    我怀疑她患有阅读障碍或某种原因’她不仅拼错了一个或两个单词。说,在一篇300字的文章中,她可以>10 misspellings.
    It’对我来说遇到像她这样的问题的学生是很不常见的。其实她’是第一个,所以’s been frustrating.
    Could you give me some advice on this? Thank you in advance!

    • Eric Wenninger says:

      嘿Nia’毫无疑问,对于许多进入中年级及以后的学生来说,拼写仍然是一个难题。有很多原因可以证明这种情况。一件事你’我要考虑的是您的教学重点。例如,撰写论文是一个首先专注于构思思想和组织思想的好地方。在学生进行作品编辑的过程中,应稍后集中注意语法和拼写。如果您发现学生在为特定的语法或拼写要点而苦苦挣扎,那么最好将其带入针对性的迷你课程,其中语法或拼写可以成为主要重点。希望学生能够将其整合到他们的写作中,这通常需要大量的反复练习。有关如何以更系统的方式专注于与年龄较大的学生进行拼写的一些想法,请查看 this article.

  25. Jenn says:

    问题:这些缝隙填充物如何交付或提供给每个学生使用?他们可以在学生家里完成吗’s family computer?

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