And so it began: My daughter and I planned when her two friends would come over to work on it. I texted their moms and we set a date. We also figured out what supplies 她’d需要手工艺品商店，什么时候我要带她去那里买到这一切。我们最终花了40美元在橡皮泥，喷漆，假棕榈树和小恐龙造型上。然后’在我对价值约40美元的物品说不之后 other stuff 她 wanted to get.
When I ask my daughter about the other student projects that were turned in that day, 她 confirms my suspicions that they ranged in quality: Some, 她 says, were “huge and detailed,”其他则只不过是一个彩绘的水瓶而已。
Though I never confirmed it, I suspect that each of those projects got vastly different 年级s.
虽然 a movement is growing to eliminate 年级s，对于我们大多数人来说，这仍然是现实，并且影响着从大学入学到学生是否可以进行某些实地考察的所有方面。所以’重要的是，我们要尽力确保他们衡量重要的事情。
在很多情况下’s not happening. Take the volcano project: The 年级 students received on that ultimately reflected the resources each group happened to have at home—not what they learned or even the effort each student personally put into the task. Those with the “huge and detailed” ones probably got the best 年级s, and those with the painted water bottles probably got the lowest.
- The student whose essay gets a D, because even though he organized it pretty well, made some strong, well-supported arguments, and used rich vocabulary, his 教er’s rubric allotted 40 percent of the 年级 to neatness and correctness, and he had a lot of mistakes. The 教er lets him revise for a higher score, but only gives half credit for the points earned the second time around.
- The student who raises his 年级 by earning extra credit for donating tissues and hand sanitizer to the class.
- The student who gets a C on an assignment that requires her to compose an original song to 说明 a constitutional amendment. Despite her solid understanding of the constitution, 她 doesn’碰巧有写歌词和音乐的诀窍。
- The student whose project is turned in a day late and gets only half credit according to her 教er’s “no excuses” late policy.
In all of these cases, the 年级 is not an accurate representation of what a student has learned. This is a problem of design: When constructing assignments, 评定s, and 等级 policies, every 教er makes dozens of small decisions that determine how much a 年级 reflects a student’s academic work and how much it reflects a mishmash of other factors. Those quantities are different for every 教er and every assignment. Despite that, we tend to treat 年级s as if they mean the same thing all the time.
所以呢’该做些什么？如果您或您的同事不在’t ready to completely overhaul your 等级 system (again, see how others are doing that here），或者您没有’t moved to standards-based 等级, you can still improve the integrity of traditional 年级s by considering some important questions while planning for instruction.
The 年级 on an assignment should match the learning students are supposed to be doing in your class. This sounds simple, but it amazes me how often I see assignments that seem to have no real connection to what the curriculum says 学生正在学习。
如果您的标准要求学生“能够解释地理如何影响文化，”然后作业应要求他们对此做一些改动： 说明 how geography impacts culture. If, instead, they are making a relief map that shows geographic features, and their 年级 is based largely on how accurately they represent those features, then they are being 年级d on map-making skills, not on the standard.
2. Are you going to 教 everything you will measure?
假设您分配了一个小组项目，每个学生的一部分’s 年级 will be based on how well he or 她 worked with the group. Collaborative skills are important, absolutely, but if you’为他们重新评分，应该’t you also be 教ing them?
同样地，如果您’re going to ask students to do an essay-type question to demonstrate their learning, and part of their 年级 will be based on how effectively they write, then ideally, some of your 教ing 在评估之前 应该给学生练习您想在该任务上看到的各种写作技巧。
如果我们的课程没有’t prepare students to do well on 年级d assignments and 评定s, then those 年级s aren’衡量我们班级学习的公平性。
When creating assignments, we often have a general idea of what a good end-product will look like, but we don’t always know for sure until the work gets turned in. At that point, it’s too late for students to rise to our expectations, and if we haven’t clearly defined them ahead of time, it’s easy for personal bias to cloud our judgment.
We’ll get better work from students and judge it more fairly if we identify and communicate the criteria for success ahead of time. Many 教ers accomplish this with a rubric given to students before they start. These come in different formats: A growing number of 教ers are finding that students appreciate the 单点指标 清晰易用。
4. How much of the 年级 depends on outside resources?
If an assignment is going to be completed partly or entirely at home, take a good look at how much the available resources outside of school could influence the 年级. Things like transportation, money for supplies, access to technology, or help from an adult can all contribute to an end product that looks impressive, but may not directly reflect that student’的学术技能或努力。
If an assignment is delivered with only one 类型 of learner in mind—with instructions only given verbally, for example—some students will be behind before they even start. Ideally, every task will be designed in a way that all students can access.
Universal Design for Learning is a framework that can help 教ers design materials so that all learners have equal access to them. To learn more, watch 此概述视频 或探索 UDL准则 由CAST开发。在努力使您的作业更通用时，请看一些出色的功能 辅助工具 Microsoft offers 教ers for free.
Similarly, if the task favors students who happen to have a specific 类型 of artistic skill—the way the constitutional song assignment did for students with musical talent—others who might have preferred to demonstrate their learning through an essay, a poster, or a video are less likely to shine.
Too often, 教ers give 年级s to all classroom activity; they are convinced that kids won’t do something unless it’s going to get a 年级. And that means tasks that are really meant to give students 实践 in a skill or early exposure to content are ultimately included in final 年级 calculations.
他们不应该’t. Instead of making everything 年级d, have students do some class work as 实践, in preparation for a task that will be 年级d. So if students have to take a test on long division, require them to do enough self-graded 实践 pages until they get 80 percent or better. These problems won’t be part of their final 年级 calculation, which also means you don’t have to 年级 them, but students can’t take the test until they can demonstrate proficiency on the 实践, and their 年级 on the test will count. This way, their 年级 will reflect their mastery of long division without penalizing them for how long it took to master the skill.
Some policies on late work can have a significant impact on student 年级s, so that a student who turns work in late can have very low 年级s, even if they have mastered the content. In classes where late work is penalized, a 年级 is a reflection of the student’时间管理，压力，完美主义或其他许多可能的因素。那是什么’t是学习的反映。
Despite this, many 教ers feel that taking points is their only option for responding to late work. 这块 by Starr Sackstein explores this dilemma and considers some ways 教ers can address the problem without docking points. Spoiler alert: It’这不是一种万能的解决方案，因为学生由于各种原因而迟到工作。“我们与各个年龄段的学生面对的每一个挑战的根源都是一个故事，” 她 writes. “Our job as 教ers to figure out what the story is. Some students will be an open book and others we will need to be detectives to figure stuff out. Don’不要放弃孩子。给出零表示放弃，几乎期望他们这样做。”
为任何不做的事情打分’t directly reflect learning can have an incredibly distorting effect on 年级s. In some cases, it elevates 年级s, giving the impression of mastery 没有实际的掌握. In other cases, it masks problems: If a student misses a few test items, but erases them with bonus points, that student could fly under the 教er’雷达，错过重新上课的机会。
Students who are doing so well on the regular class work that they finish early don’t need extra credit, they need differentiated assignments and more challenge. Students who do poorly on assignments don’t need extra credit to make up the missing points; they need opportunities to re-do and improve on the work.
这块 乔伊·基尔（Joy Kirr）的著作出色地展示了各种典型的额外信用分配如何充斥各种问题。
If you calculate your 年级s by simply averaging them—dividing the points earned by the total possible points—your final course 年级 could be doing a poor job of representing what your students actually learned in your class. In this piece on the pitfalls of 年级 averaging，Rick Wormelli使用特定的示例来说明此问题。
Having 年级d this way myself, I always liked the simplicity and convenience of 年级 averaging, so I know that the thought of trying some other system will likely be daunting. But if it means our 年级s will have more integrity, it’s worth it.
要考虑的一种替代方法是 衰减平均值, which puts more weight on assignments done later in a learning cycle. In theory, this recognizes that skills should improve over time. 虽然 this approach seems to work better in skill-based classes, it shows us one way to rethink the way we calculate 年级s so they are better aligned with who our students are as learners.
成绩本质上是不完美的。 真正评估我们的学生’ learning, we need to get to know them, observe them, and study a wide sampling of their work over time. When we reduce all that to a single measurement for the sake of efficiency, we lose that bigger picture. But as long as 年级s remain a reality in our system, let’s be thoughtful and deliberate when we calculate them. ♦