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最近,我的女儿被派去制作火山模型。 这是一个小组项目,打算完全在家里完成,唯一明确的要求是它必须看起来像一座火山,如果它真的可以爆发,则要加分。

And so it began: My daughter and I planned when her two friends would come over to work on it. I texted their moms and we set a date. We also figured out what supplies 她’d需要手工艺品商店,什么时候我要带她去那里买到这一切。我们最终花了40美元在橡皮泥,喷漆,假棕榈树和小恐龙造型上。然后’在我对价值约40美元的物品说不之后 other stuff 她 wanted to get.

三个女孩一个下午在我们家见了面。另一位父母带走了他们用来制造火山的材料。我坚持要他们在饭厅里做项目,我们可以确保他们继续做事,而不是我的女儿。’的卧室,我知道他们不会’t。我的丈夫帮助他们在地下室寻找旧的灯罩,以使模型高一些,帮助他们弄清楚如何使黏土粘在灯罩上,然后进行了几次试车。“eruption”和他们在一起,所以他们知道它会在课堂上起作用。几天后,我开车送女儿去学校,并帮助她安全地将模特带入课堂。

要完成这项作业,必须做很多事情,而实际上只有三名名字在项目上的学生才能完成。一世’我不是说我的女儿和她的朋友没有’虽然没有建造火山,但他们在此过程中得到了很多支持,而且如果缺少任何支持(时间,交通,金钱,空间,建议,监督),则该项目将不太成功。

When I ask my daughter about the other student projects that were turned in that day, 她 confirms my suspicions that they ranged in quality: Some, 她 says, were “huge and detailed,”其他则只不过是一个彩绘的水瓶而已。

Though I never confirmed it, I suspect that each of those projects got vastly different 年级s.

我们正在测量什么?

虽然 a movement is growing to eliminate 年级s,对于我们大多数人来说,这仍然是现实,并且影响着从大学入学到学生是否可以进行某些实地考察的所有方面。所以’重要的是,我们要尽力确保他们衡量重要的事情。

在很多情况下’s not happening. Take the volcano project: The 年级 students received on that ultimately reflected the resources each group happened to have at home—not what they learned or even the effort each student personally put into the task. Those with the “huge and detailed” ones probably got the best 年级s, and those with the painted water bottles probably got the lowest.

或考虑以下其他情况:

In all of these cases, the 年级 is not an accurate representation of what a student has learned. This is a problem of design: When constructing assignments, 评定s, and 等级 policies, every 教er makes dozens of small decisions that determine how much a 年级 reflects a student’s academic work and how much it reflects a mishmash of other factors. Those quantities are different for every 教er and every assignment. Despite that, we tend to treat 年级s as if they mean the same thing all the time.

规划时要问的几个问题

所以呢’该做些什么?如果您或您的同事不在’t ready to completely overhaul your 等级 system (again, see how others are doing that here),或者您没有’t moved to standards-based 等级, you can still improve the integrity of traditional 年级s by considering some important questions while planning for instruction.

1.此任务衡量什么学习?

The 年级 on an assignment should match the learning students are supposed to be doing in your class. This sounds simple, but it amazes me how often I see assignments that seem to have no real connection to what the curriculum says 学生正在学习。

如果您的标准要求学生“能够解释地理如何影响文化,”然后作业应要求他们对此做一些改动: 说明 how geography impacts culture. If, instead, they are making a relief map that shows geographic features, and their 年级 is based largely on how accurately they represent those features, then they are being 年级d on map-making skills, not on the standard.

当像这样的品质时,这尤其成问题“creativity”是您标准的一部分。一方面,这个术语对不同的人意味着完全不同的事情,因此学生将不得不猜测如何在该指标上表现良好。更重要的是,对“creativity”在本应衡量其他指标的作业上,结果会失真,这使得分辨谁真正掌握了这项技能变得更加困难。

2. Are you going to 教 everything you will measure?

我们经常为学生恰巧带来的技能和素质分配分数,但是我们班上从未教过。

假设您分配了一个小组项目,每个学生的一部分’s 年级 will be based on how well he or 她 worked with the group. Collaborative skills are important, absolutely, but if you’为他们重新评分,应该’t you also be 教ing them?

同样地,如果您’re going to ask students to do an essay-type question to demonstrate their learning, and part of their 年级 will be based on how effectively they write, then ideally, some of your 教ing 在评估之前 应该给学生练习您想在该任务上看到的各种写作技巧。

如果我们的课程没有’t prepare students to do well on 年级d assignments and 评定s, then those 年级s aren’衡量我们班级学习的公平性。

3.在此任务上,高质量的工作是什么样的?

When creating assignments, we often have a general idea of what a good end-product will look like, but we don’t always know for sure until the work gets turned in. At that point, it’s too late for students to rise to our expectations, and if we haven’t clearly defined them ahead of time, it’s easy for personal bias to cloud our judgment.

We’ll get better work from students and judge it more fairly if we identify and communicate the criteria for success ahead of time. Many 教ers accomplish this with a rubric given to students before they start. These come in different formats: A growing number of 教ers are finding that students appreciate the 单点指标 清晰易用。

我也强烈建议您像学生一样亲自做作业-我们称此过程为 狗食。这将帮助您更清晰地了解如何为此任务定义卓越。

4. How much of the 年级 depends on outside resources?

If an assignment is going to be completed partly or entirely at home, take a good look at how much the available resources outside of school could influence the 年级. Things like transportation, money for supplies, access to technology, or help from an adult can all contribute to an end product that looks impressive, but may not directly reflect that student’的学术技能或努力。

如果您的作业设计得使重点放在内容和技能上,并且您进行了设置以便大部分工作都在课堂上进行,那么您获得的作业应该是每个学生可以做什么的更准确的表示。

5.不管他们如何学习最好,所有学生都能在这项任务上做得很好吗?

If an assignment is delivered with only one 类型 of learner in mind—with instructions only given verbally, for example—some students will be behind before they even start. Ideally, every task will be designed in a way that all students can access.

Universal Design for Learning is a framework that can help 教ers design materials so that all learners have equal access to them. To learn more, watch 此概述视频 或探索 UDL准则 由CAST开发。在努力使您的作业更通用时,请看一些出色的功能 辅助工具 Microsoft offers 教ers for free.

Similarly, if the task favors students who happen to have a specific 类型 of artistic skill—the way the constitutional song assignment did for students with musical talent—others who might have preferred to demonstrate their learning through an essay, a poster, or a video are less likely to shine.

不要将学生的产品限制在一个狭窄的选项上,而应考虑是否可以在显示学习方式上给他们选择。如果火山项目是为学生设计的,目的是为真实火山的运行方式创建模型,则该模型可以通过纸质图表,视频,学生制作的小品或物理模型来完成。这不仅使学生有机会使用他们独特的礼物,而且还提供了花费更少的钱实现的选择。

6.可以叫这个作业吗“practice” instead?

Too often, 教ers give 年级s to all classroom activity; they are convinced that kids won’t do something unless it’s going to get a 年级. And that means tasks that are really meant to give students 实践 in a skill or early exposure to content are ultimately included in final 年级 calculations.

他们不应该’t. Instead of making everything 年级d, have students do some class work as 实践, in preparation for a task that will be 年级d. So if students have to take a test on long division, require them to do enough self-graded 实践 pages until they get 80 percent or better. These problems won’t be part of their final 年级 calculation, which also means you don’t have to 年级 them, but students can’t take the test until they can demonstrate proficiency on the 实践, and their 年级 on the test will count. This way, their 年级 will reflect their mastery of long division without penalizing them for how long it took to master the skill.

其他要考虑的因素

后期工作

Some policies on late work can have a significant impact on student 年级s, so that a student who turns work in late can have very low 年级s, even if they have mastered the content. In classes where late work is penalized, a 年级 is a reflection of the student’时间管理,压力,完美主义或其他许多可能的因素。那是什么’t是学习的反映。

Despite this, many 教ers feel that taking points is their only option for responding to late work. 这块 by Starr Sackstein explores this dilemma and considers some ways 教ers can address the problem without docking points. Spoiler alert: It’这不是一种万能的解决方案,因为学生由于各种原因而迟到工作。“我们与各个年龄段的学生面对的每一个挑战的根源都是一个故事,” 她 writes. “Our job as 教ers to figure out what the story is. Some students will be an open book and others we will need to be detectives to figure stuff out. Don’不要放弃孩子。给出零表示放弃,几乎期望他们这样做。”

额外信用

为任何不做的事情打分’t directly reflect learning can have an incredibly distorting effect on 年级s. In some cases, it elevates 年级s, giving the impression of mastery 没有实际的掌握. In other cases, it masks problems: If a student misses a few test items, but erases them with bonus points, that student could fly under the 教er’雷达,错过重新上课的机会。

Students who are doing so well on the regular class work that they finish early don’t need extra credit, they need differentiated assignments and more challenge. Students who do poorly on assignments don’t need extra credit to make up the missing points; they need opportunities to re-do and improve on the work.

这块 乔伊·基尔(Joy Kirr)的著作出色地展示了各种典型的额外信用分配如何充斥各种问题。

成绩平均

If you calculate your 年级s by simply averaging them—dividing the points earned by the total possible points—your final course 年级 could be doing a poor job of representing what your students actually learned in your class. In this piece on the pitfalls of 年级 averaging,Rick Wormelli使用特定的示例来说明此问题。

Having 年级d this way myself, I always liked the simplicity and convenience of 年级 averaging, so I know that the thought of trying some other system will likely be daunting. But if it means our 年级s will have more integrity, it’s worth it.

要考虑的一种替代方法是 衰减平均值, which puts more weight on assignments done later in a learning cycle. In theory, this recognizes that skills should improve over time. 虽然 this approach seems to work better in skill-based classes, it shows us one way to rethink the way we calculate 年级s so they are better aligned with who our students are as learners.

成绩本质上是不完美的。 真正评估我们的学生’ learning, we need to get to know them, observe them, and study a wide sampling of their work over time. When we reduce all that to a single measurement for the sake of efficiency, we lose that bigger picture. But as long as 年级s remain a reality in our system, let’s be thoughtful and deliberate when we calculate them. ♦

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37条留言

  1. 罗宾·斯普恩 says:

    Wow! This was an eye-opening 文章. While I try to only 年级 what I want students to know and understand, this 文章 showed me areas in which 我可以 definitely improve. 谢谢! Saving to use as I plan next year over the summer.

  2. 詹,谢谢您再次雄辩地将我们许多人的想法说出来,并为改变实践提供了实用的建议。一如既往的好东西!

  3. 阿尔伯特·富兰克林 says:

    在初中时,我的德语,法语和自然科学老师向我和几个朋友介绍了他的大学学业或他在德国长大后的学习经历。尽管他在欧洲的整个家庭都告诉他,即使他被皇室包围,偶尔也有聚会的生活方式,但他们之间并没有任何联系。但是,只要按一下手指,他就会告诉他们,” What do you mean, I’m not connected?”当我的老师来的时候’是时候去德国了’作为国家仲裁员,他未通过测试的科学部分,这意味着他只有找到才能找到工作。私下里,他一直在重复通过他的难度,但是当我问他每次他是否通过时,他的分数都提高了,他说:“Why, yes it did!”搬到南加州后,又回到北加州,一个稍大的前学生曾告诉我他已经通过了仲裁员!他不知道的是他内在地害怕参加考试,而他试图告诉我的计划是停止一起参加考试。给我带来这个消息的人根本不知道我们以前的学术老师,如果他先听家人的话,我们将再也见不到。’的学术预言。这是为了强调学术界实际上没有的低迷时期!

  4. 雷纳·德尔·罗西奥·罗萨多·加西亚 says:

    This definitely makes me sit down and reflect on my 等级. This is a very difficult topic because there’s not a simple solution for this but I’m sure that taking those questions into consideration will be a great start to improve my 等级 ! 谢谢 very much this was very helpful because it wasn’t instructions on how to do things better but some good points we need to reflect upon to be more accurate that our 年级s really represent what we meant to.

  5. 克雷格·凯塞尔海姆 says:

    Great post, 珍ifer. Many thanks. Some other complications that I’d like to highlight from your volcano anecdote: Equity is a big one. Not all families have $40, mobility, available parents, etc. So the assignment you describe is unavoidably punitive to needy children.
    Group 年级s is another large issue. There is no way for the 教er to track the individual learning of each student in a group project (at least in the way you describe it), and so there is no guarantee that the same 年级 represents the actual learning of each partner in the project.
    感谢您的精彩文章。

    • 小馅饼B says:

      克雷格,很有见识。这让我想起了所有必须读的书…我可以在哪里建造火山? Pat Van Doren撰写。它描述了一个无家可归的女孩在学校工作的困难。我们确实确实需要“Pay”注意所有的学生。无论如何,我对火山项目的疑问之一是,学生会学到什么?为什么不调查火山附近社区发生了什么,孩子们可以讨论一种想法来帮助确保社区安全吗?这是批判性思维。苏打瓶中的苏打水和醋到底有什么用?

  6. 谢谢…I’m an AVID and English 教er and see such HUGE variations in 等级, it makes me question the validity of all 等级 systems!

  7. 朱莉娅·格罗迪(Julia Grody) says:

    我的每项作业都一样“type” worth more points than the last one of that 类型, over the course of the year. This has the advantage of transparency —学生很快就会知道,一篇论文如何以及为什么在十月份可以得到40分,而在一月​​份可以得到70分,到六月则可以得到100分。它结合了平均的简便性和衰减平均的优点。

  8. 两点建议:
    1.使用反馈和前馈作为评估,而不是数字。 2.取消建立‘grading’在每个级别。我们可能会喜欢’认为当前的系统可能是深思熟虑,蓄意的或最重要的是关怀的。

    我会听从自己的建议吗?不,我不允许。
    When you X-ray 评定’s spine you see it for what it is–a rigid hierarchy whose purpose is to separate the goats from the 她ep, the wheat from the chaff, the privileged from the precariat and the unnecessariat. Institutional imperatives rule and the ultimate rule is survival of the institution.

    话虽如此,谢谢您的启发,尤其是要指出特权人士如何在各个层面上都有优势。

  9. Hi 珍ifer!

    谢谢 so much for the post! This really resonated with me as a technology 教er and coach as my courses are primarily project based and as a result the actual 评定 process can be somewhat ambigous in nature.

    我特别喜欢您的建议,首先要做好任务!太必要了!

    再次感谢 -

    玛丽莎

  10. Steve says:

    这个ep疯狂地有用。我拼命地试图促使我的教授们摆脱他们倾向于使用的空洞的传统方法,而这则ep涵盖了我对他们的大量争论。

    狗食。太必要了。到目前为止,我’我被迫去看我的教育’作为一种令人讨厌的仪式’失去控制。我的不满情绪加倍增加了任何迹象,使我怀疑所有阴霾仪式的真实性也符合我的大学经历,我之前的那些经历’实际上要忍受他们认为对我来说是必要的痛苦“just get through.”在我可以让他们听的任何闪电谈话中,“狗食”将是重复的幻灯片。

    我可以’告诉您足够多的希望,您的播客给了我真正的说服我的教授们停止折磨我们并给予我们真正的教育的希望。

  11. 珍ifer says:

    学校外面有一些很棒的主意,例如狗食和思考对学生的支持。关于迟交的作业–我不会扣减迟交的作业,只要他们在相同的评分期(9周)内完成任务即可。但是,对于学生经常交什么迟到的作业,总是有明显的趋势。它相差不大。

  12. 汉娜 says:

    我真的很喜欢这个职位!我确实想知道如何使用积分系统进行课堂管理,以及它是否可以提高/降低成绩,从而降低学生的代表性’对内容的理解。我之所以特别提出这个要求,是因为Smart Classroom Management的Michael Linsin建议为高中和高中生使用每日积分。也许行得通,因为在他的系统下,您“teach”并为行为建模,从而使其可评分?如果对课堂行为进行评分是有益的,我们如何适当地加权该评分?我认为林辛(Linsin)建议每日得分占总成绩的50%(请参阅他的《高中教师SCM计划》第10页)。但这听起来只是行为的可笑….. Thoughts?

    • 这是一个很好的问题,我可能曾经有一段时间会同意他的观点,但是现在我’我不太确定。我真的很喜欢他在课堂管理上的大多数职位,但是我’m not familiar with this particular system. I think there are some people who would argue that behavior and 年级s should be completely separate, but then that leaves you with little currency. I would like to hear what others think about this, but I’我倾向于少得多的百分比。我同意50%的声音太高了。希望我对您有一个更具体的答案!

  13. This is a very concise and helpful post! 谢谢!

    I wonder what your thoughts are about conversations with students and observations you make? How do they fit into a system that includes 年级s? Younger students don’t always produce products (assignments) you can 年级.

    • Hi Devika. When I taught 1st Grade, conversations and observations were always an integral part of my 评定s. I think this data could and should fit into a 等级 system. Just be sure expectations and the meanings of letter 年级s are clearly determined and communicated ahead of time. At the end of H归因于将专栏分数转化为成绩,Jenn和Amy从4.23.18开始有一段很好的对话,我认为这与您的对话非常相似’re asking — I’d check it out.

  14. 洛夫顿巷 says:

    I work at a University English Language Institute where all my students are non-native speakers, and all my classes have multiple L1 languages. I have spent the last two years working on improving my rubrics so that the criteria are quantified (although this can sometimes be just numbering individual sub-criteria for inclusion in a category), linguistically useful for student English level (we are in a public/private 伙伴hip that sends us recruited students of all levels) and, most importantly, provides a strong base for students to really understand where the problem is.

    当我开始这个项目时,我认为解决方案只是量化了专栏标准,但是当我处理专栏和标准时,我意识到要使专栏真正沟通,他们必须使用适当的语言。为此,我已经开始从一些使用词汇方法学的同事那里获得帮助,并且有所帮助,但是我仍在努力改善这种交流,而无需学生去求助于翻译或词典。现在,我正在使用一种方法,将印刷的细则带入课堂供学生学习,并就意义和词汇提出疑问,然后我将其改写为使细则清晰明了。

    到目前为止的成绩非常好,学生要求更高的成绩,因为他们“must have 满分” have dropped to almost zero. Just yesterday a student remarked that looking at the rubric 说明ed a lot and changed how 她 and her group were going to 教 their part of the project. All this is good, but I feel like the rubric battle is being lost because of the rubrics I see in the textbooks, and in the 等级 of 教ers coming out of our Ed School. More and more are turning out rubrics based on a five point scale that means that students don’无法从评论中获得任何合理的反馈,并且经常会得到“full marks”或失败,如果他们确实只是部分错误,或者他们的理解不完整,但是无法给他们任何有用的反馈。

    我要指出的是,教科书中存在一个系统性问题(无论如何,对于我的教学世界的一个小角落),要么是逐渐演变为通货膨胀,要么是通货膨胀。… maybe emptiness is the best way to think of it. The students get nothing but a final 年级 that is, in itself, empty of information for them about what they did that gave them the 年级 the rubric shows.

    我很想听听您对专栏的意见和想法,以及如何利用它们为学生提供更完整和有用的信息以及更实用的专栏创作方法。

  15. 珍ifer L. says:

    Great post. Do you recommend “standards based 等级” and, if so, do your rubrics include standards? 谢谢.

    • 嗨,詹妮弗!这是Debbie Sachs,一位具有教育学崇拜的客户体验经理。我和詹恩(Jenn)谈过,她的个人观点是她的一切’曾经听说过像这样基于标准的分级声音’是传统分级的更好替代方案。但…she’s never worked at a school district that used it, so 她 doesn’没有亲身经历。顺便说一句,我工作过的学区使用了“no 年级s”K-5的系统。我对基于标准的评分的经验对我来说很有意义—更少的精力和时间花费在点,平均值和与我们真正需要评估无关的事情上。我们花费了更多时间来监控学生,以确保他们走上正轨,然后决定在年底之前我们需要做些什么才能使他们到达那里(或以后)。

      珍’s <a href="//www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/专栏包-3414843″>Rubric Pack includes 4 styles that are fully editable and customizable so that 教ers can include standards of their choice.

      希望这可以帮助!

  16. 您如何设计用于编写和管理阅读所有内容的“关守”实践。我的5个部分平均有29个孩子。我们还希望阅读他们编写的所有内容。我喜欢这个主意,但我不知道该如何管理所有这些文件。

  17. Minda says:

    我总能在拼贴画中告诉教授教授自己何时做作业。谁做的教授’经常几乎没有分数分配几乎不可能的东西。

  18. 杰基·卡皮奥 says:

    大家好,很好的话题。所有的优点。对成绩的担忧是正确的,许多我相信了很长时间。成绩。一些学生太被赶上了“grade”学习的概念慢慢消失了。因此,我们的孩子们,我们很小的时候就被告知接受A’s很明亮,收到C的人很好。在我看来,成绩只占很小的一部分,但是我们是一个鼓励不如C的教育体系。换个角度来看。北欧学校采用学生-老师-系统协作的方式,并将学生视为“partners”: Interesting…

    田中(M.Tanaka),内罗(R.Naylor),J。&Zavale,N.C.(2019年)。学生参与的未来。高等教育中的学生参与和质量保证:国际合作促进学习,162。

  19. 莎莉 says:

    如果有人有兴趣,Joy Kirr 额外信用链接将被中断。
    //www.teachersgoinggradeless.com/blog/2017/11/18/extra-credit?rq=extra%20credit

    • 埃里克·温宁格 says:

      非常感谢您分享此Shaylee!我们’很快就会在帖子中对其进行更新。

  20. 很棒的豆荚演员!关于评分,标题,额外信用,后期工作和可怕的零的精彩评论和合乎逻辑的观点!我从不喜欢零,但也没有想出该怎么办才可以上交的作业。传统的100%得分A 90,B 80等且所有60以下的得分都是F为我工作。为什么60岁以下的孩子都失败了?谁说平均水平是70?哦,平均吗?好吧,90%加90%加0%/ 3 = 60%还是失败?不见得。一定发生了什么事!感谢您的额外想法。

  21. 泰勒·克雷格 says:

    You made some extremely relevant points in this post! I especially agree with your point that 评定s need to be more closely aligned with the standards. It is so unfair to expect our students to present the information that they’ve so called “learned”in a manner that isn’t representative of how they were“taught.” 谢谢 for this!

  22. 娜塔莉·伯克尔(Natalie Burkle) says:

    谢谢 for sharing! I am still working toward my 教ing degree and have yet to begin working in the classroom, however, this is an eye opening 文章 for sure! Grading was not something I had given too much thought until I read your blog. You definitely point out great things to pay attention to. I love the questions you designed. I will definitely same them and use them when I begin creating curriculum in my classroom.

  23. 多莫尼克·麦克尼尔 says:

    自大流行开始以来,我一直在尝试以新的方式进行分级。这确实让我思考了如何评估学生的成绩。我很高兴看到您的播客。它迫使我重新考虑评分和评估。评分应着重于对学习成果的掌握。我也喜欢这张标题所附的图片,“您的成绩有多准确?规划时要问的一些问题。” It really puts into perspective what am I 教ing? How am I measuring it? Is it applicable? Is it relevant? I’我真的更倾向于在即将到来的学年进行基于标准的评分。我设定适用的期望很重要。感谢您讨论此主题。您提供了很多其他资源。

  24. 杰森·比林格(Jason BIringer) says:

    One of the main challenges deals with equity. Will every child have access to all the necessary materials to succeed? I will have to be very careful to not have bias to certain products because those students have access to more resources. It is imperative to focus on the“taught skills.”

  25. 萨曼莎·约翰逊(Samantha Johnson) says:

    There were some excellent resources and viewpoints mentioned that will need to be addressed as we are moving forward in digital learning. Finding the time and specific resources needed in some cases may be challenging to encompass while synchronously 教ing.

  26. 艾莉森·史蒂文斯(Alison Stevens) says:

    Great points were made to remind us that when 等级 to make sure it is for the right reasons. We should make sure that we are 等级 only on the skills we taught, skills we want students to master and to think about what is important to 年级. One of the many great points 她 made was to do the assignment/project yourself and to model what you expect from the assignment. It’在给作业评分时提供选项很重要-每个学生的学习方式都不相同,因此我们应该提供选项-特别是在虚拟学习中-这样学生才能利用自己的优势表达自己。底线-确保我们根据所教授的技能进行评分。

  27. 索尼娅·约翰逊(Sonia Johnson) says:

    这只是表明要在远程学习中投入更多的工作。简单评估很重要,以确保对每个学生公平。

  28. Saja says:

    Love it! You argue a good case against so much of what 教ers have accepted as TRUTH. Grading policies are one reason I’我离开了教室。我通过研讨会和私人会议来支持青年,消除等级是我第二好的礼物’ve given to my students and has brought joy to my professional life (first is autonomy). I shake my head at 教ers who mark 0 points for a failing assignment worth 100 points. The math here is critical. Please keep talking about 年级s and outdated, punitive, and illogical ways 教ers apply them to learning situations.

  29. 尼古拉斯·鲁伊斯 says:

    出色的播客!我从哥伦比亚来。

  30. Dawn says:

    Assuming that students got lower 年级s for having less access to materials, and writing about it without verifying it is irresponsible.

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